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Thermonics Low Temp. Chillers – Glossary

Heat Transfer Fluids (HTF)

Heat Transfer fluids exchange Heat with Refrigerants (Primary Fluids) to facilitate the removal of heat from a Process/Load. The heat transfer fluid interfaces, through a variety of means, with the load, to remove heat from the load, which is then removed from the heat transfer fluid by the refrigerant using Heat Exchangers (typically composed of touching and/or interlocking Conductive Coils and Heat Transfer Fins). Commonly used in the Chiller Industry include HFE-7100, Ethylene Glycol/Water, Kryo-60, Syltherm and PAO Oil.


In Chiller Technology, Heaters, of varying types and installation methods, are the means by which, in the chilling process, Temperature is regulated and controlled.


HFE-7100 is a Heat Transfer Fluid (See Heat Transfer Fluid) commonly used in Chiller Technology. HFE-7100 is a Non-flammable, Low toxicity, Zero Ozone Depletion Potential HTF with a Boiling Range of 50 °C - 99 °C.

IEC 60204

The IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) is an international organization that prepares and publishes International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies. IEC 60204-1:2016 applies to electrical, electronic and programmable electronic equipment and systems, as well as to machines not portable by hand while working, including groups of machines working together in a coordinated manner, making it very relevant to the design and manufacture of Chiller Systems.


IEEE is a grouping of Electrical Standards applicable to the design, manufacture and documentation of state-of-the-art Chiller Equipment. These standards are set out by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standards Association, developed from the consensus of its voting industry-representative and scientific members worldwide.


ISO is one of the many Industry standards applicable to the design, manufacture and documentation of state-of-the-art Chiller Equipment. ISO 9001:2015 is an internationally recognized document produced and maintained by the International Organization for Standardization, which defines and promotes worldwide proprietary, industrial and commercial standards.


The International Traffic in Arms Regulations or 'ITAR', implements the Arms Export Control Act (AECA), which gives the US Department of State oversight and control of the export and temporary import of defense articles and services designated by the Act. Most military development and equipment contracts, including the manufacture of chillers destined to be used in such research and development, are governed by ITAR.

Kryo 60

Kryo 60 is a Silicone-based Heat Transfer Fluid (See Heat Transfer Fluid) commonly used in Chiller Technology. The fluid is a colorless, very low-viscosity (kinematic at 20 °C ) silicone oil for low temperature applications, with an Operating Temperature Range Of -60° to 80 C, and a Fire Point > 110 °C.

LCO2 (Liquid Carbon Dioxide)

Liquid Carbon Dioxide is the Liquid form of Carbon Dioxide Gas; in the Chiller Industry, Liquid Carbon Dioxide is used as a cooling agent.

LN2 (Liquid Nitrogen)

In Chiller technology, LN2 may be utilized to either supplement or replace the traditional Mechanical (Compressor Based) Refrigeration Systems found in most standard chillers.

Load (Heat Load)

Heat Load is a calculated thermal value used to define the amount of cooling power (heat that must be removed) necessary to effectively control the temperature in a defined space in order to meet user requirements. In Chiller technology, the 'Space' is generally a process which is being temperature-controlled.

Looping (Loop)

In Programmed Temperature Control, Looping describes the process of repeating the segments in a Cycle (see Cycle) a designated number of times; each repetition is a 'Loop'.


Throughout the United States and around the world, NFPA 70/National Electrical Code (NEC), sets the foundation for electrical safety in industrial occupancies, including the design, manufacture and documentation of state-of-the-art Chiller Equipment. The Code presents the latest comprehensive regulations for electrical wiring, overcurrent protection, grounding, and installation of equipment. Adopted in all 50 states, the NEC is the benchmark for safe electrical design, installation, and inspection protecting users and property from electrical hazards.

Noise (Electrical Noise)

Electrical Noise is any undesirable, unwanted electrical interference or disturbance to a given electronic signal. In Chiller Technology, Noise is generally characterized as cyclic or pseudo-random signals coming from other components in the equipmemnt, or from other electronic signal msources in the immediate area. This electrical noise can interfere with the accurate readings necessary for precise temperature programming, generation and control.

Open Loop' and 'Closed Loop' Chillers

The term Closed-Loop Chiller refers to Chillers that are self contained, in that the reservoir, pump, and evaporator are all contained within the chiller, with the coolant continuously recirculating within the unit to remove heat by means of a Heat Transfer Medium. Open Loop Chillers control the temperature of a liquid in a remote open tank (in the case of large Industrial Chillers) or, in the case of Portable Chillers, the temperature of a Process, by continuously recirculating it. The liquid is drawn from the external tank or process, pumped through the Chiller and back to the tank/process. The term Open Loop is also used to refer to cooling systems in which Expendable Cryogenic Coolants such as Liquid Nitrogen (LN2) or Liquid Carbon Dioxide (LCO2) must be periodically replenished by the end user.

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